Marker Categories

These are the marker categories appearing in Computer Recognition of English Word Senses by Edward Kelly and Philip Stone, pages 17-21.

A few of these categories were not actually used (or used only once or twice) and have been dropped from the Inquirer's Master Dictionary.

For further information as to the origins of these categories, click here.



I Determiners


All of subcategories listed below:

A. Articles


a, an, the
B. Demonstratives


Two subcategories:


this, these


that, those
C. Genitives


my, our, your, his, her, their, its, whose

D. Numbers


Two subcategories:



one, two, three, 35, 1968


first, second, 3rd ... next, last
E. Prearticle


Two subcategories:

1 count


both, each, either, another, few, fewer, many, several, neither, every


all, any, some , enough, half, no

II. Prepositions


in, at, over, around, about, through, to, from, with, out, toward, down, up...

III. Pronouns


Two subcategories:

A. Personal definite


Four subcategories:

1. nominatives


he, she, we, you, I, they, who
2. objectives


him, her, us, you, them, whom
3. reflexives


myself, herself, themselves, itself
4. other


one, someone anyone, somebody, everybody, etc.
B. Impersonal/ indefinite


it, everyone, anything, something, nothing, none, all,

IV. Position Tests.

A.First word of sentence


B.Last word


V. Punctuation (Includes the following:)


A. Period


B. Dash


C. Question mark


D. Comma (and single parentheses)


E. Quote marks


F. Capital letter in isolation


VI. Conjunction


Two subcategories:

A. Sentential


and, but,


then, that, because, if, when, since, as, so, etc.

VII. Interrogatives


wh-words -when, why, who, what, where, how

VIII Endings

A. Root word-- no inflections


The word as it occurs in the root form.

B. "ing" ending


All words ending in "ing" except king, wing, ring, etc.

C. "ed" endings


All words ending in "ED" plus irregulars

D. "s" endings


All words ending in "s"; plus irregulars

E. "ly" ending


Words ending in "ly"; plus irregulars

F. "er" ending


Words ending in "er"; plus irregulars (comparative, not agentive)

G."est" ending


Words ending in "est"; plus irregulars

H. Other suffix assignments:




(GEN) (DET) (S')


(GEN) (DET) ('S) (BE) (VERB) (SUPV)






(NEG) (LY)



IX. Special Verbs and Verb Elements


Nine subcategories:

A. Being verbs


be, being, is, was, -re...

B. Linking verbs


seem, feel, look, sound, remain...

C. Becoming verbs


become, get, turn into, grow...

D. Have


have, has, had, having, 've...

E. Modals


can, may, shall, will, must -'ll...

F. Go verbs


go, goes, going, gone, went...

G. Do verbs


do, did, does

H. To


"to" as an infinitive

I. Negatives


not, -n't, never

X. Superverb


any verb, including special verbs


I. Animate


non-human creatures-- dog, cow, etc.

II. Human (Three subcategories:)


human nouns-- officer, man, teacher, parent, etc.

A. Male


male humans

B. Female


female humans [note: not used to disambiguate, so only "Female" tag category is maintained].

C. Kinship


brother, sister, uncle, etc.

III. Collective


collective animate groups and organizations-- mob, crowd, group, army, etc.

IV. Abstract noun (Three subcategories:)


A. Abstract


liberty, truth, honesty-abstract concepts, '-isms', and Iness.' No physical objects such as chair, table, clock, etc.

B. Time


morning, o'clock, day, hour, etc.

C. Distance


mile, yard, foot, etc.

V. Social Place


house, factory, yard, street; this includes non-specific places such as the above, but not geographical locations such as Chicago, Africa, etc.

VI. Body part


head, heart, leg, liver, etc.

VII. Political


government, delegate, legislative, etc.

VIII. Economic


spending, budget, fiscal, deficit, etc.

IX. Color


red, blue, green, yellow, etc

X. Communication


newspaper, message, book, phone, speech, print, pencil etc. Any device used for communicative purpose

XI. Emotions


anger, fury, distress, happy, etc.

XII. Frequency


occasional, seldom, often, etc.

XIII. Evaluative Adjective


good, bad, beautiful, hard, easy, etc.

XIV. Dimensionality Adjective


big, little, short, long, tall, etc.

XV. Position Adjective


low, lower, upper, high, middle, first, fourth (ordinal numbers) etc.

XVI. Degree Adverbs


very, extremely, too, rather, somewhat...

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